Leon Marshall

Leon Marshall

I study how patterns of biodiversity shift in space and time with a  focus on pollinators.  I'm particularly interested in the influence of climate and land use changes.


Wild bees, pollination, global change, biodiversity, modeling, conservation, monitoring



  • How land use and climate changes affect biodiversity across time and space and how these changes are influenced by traits, phylogeny and interactions

  • Statistical techniques and tools for analyzing and modeling species distribution and diversity

  • Global patterns of insular wild bee diversity and distribution

  • The influence of environmental changes on wild bees as crop pollinators

Collecting bees in Limburg
Bombus mendax perching in the Alps


Pan, K., Marshall, L., de Snoo, G.R. and Biesmeijer, J.C., (2024). Dutch landscapes have lost insect‐pollinated plants over the past 87 years. Journal of Applied Ecology. 61, 1323–1333. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.14649

Marshall, L., Leclercq, N., Carvalheiro, L.G., et al., (2024). Understanding and addressing shortfalls in European wild bee data. Biological Conservation, 290:110455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2024.110455

Marshall, L., Leclercq, N., Weekers, T., et al., (2023). Potential for climate change driven spatial mismatches between apple crops and their wild bee pollinators at a continental scale. Global Environmental Change, 83:102742. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2023.102742

Moens, M., Biesmeijer, J.C., Klumpers, S.G. & Marshall, L., (2023). Are threatened species special? An assessment of Dutch bees in relation to land use and climate. Ecology and Evolution13:10326. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.10326

Cadena, J.T., Boudot, J.P., Kalkman, V.J. & Marshall, L., (2023). Impacts of climate change on dragonflies and damselflies in West and Central Asia. Diversity and Distributions, 29, 912– 925. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.13704

Leclercq, N., Marshall, L., Caruso, G., et al., (2023). European bee diversity: Taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns. Journal of Biogeography50: 1244-1256.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14614

Dorji, K., Tashi, S., Biesmeijer, J.C., ... & Marshall, L., (2022). Pollinators and crops in Bhutan: insect abundance improves fruit quality in Himalayan apple orchards. Journal of Pollination Ecology31: 39-52. https://doi.org/10.26786/1920-7603(2022)670

Maebe, K., Hart, A.F., Marshall, L., et al.,  (2021). Bumblebee resilience to climate change, through plastic and adaptive responses. Global Change Biology27: 4223-4237. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15751

Marshall L, Beckers V, Vray S, et al. (2021). High thematic resolution land use change models refine biodiversity scenarios: A case study with Belgian bumblebees. Journal of Biogeographyhttps://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.14000

Gérard M, Marshall L, Martinet, B. & Michez, D. (2021), Impact of landscape fragmentation and climate change on body size variation of bumblebees during the last century. Ecography 44: 255-264. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecog.05310

Vereecken, N. J., Weekers, T., Leclercq, N., ... & Marshall, L. (2021). Insect biomass is not a consistent proxy for biodiversity metrics in wild bees. Ecological Indicators, 107132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.107132

Marshall, L., Perdijk F, Dendoncker N, (2020) Bumblebees moving up: shifts in elevation ranges in the Pyrenees over 115 years. Proc. R. Soc. B. 28720202201. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.2201

Marshall L, Biesmeijer JC, Rasmont P, et al. (2018) The interplay of climate and land use change affects the distribution of EU bumblebees. Global Change Biology 24:101–116. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13867

Marshall, L., Carvalheiro, L. G., Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J, et al. (2015) Testing projected wild bee distributions in agricultural habitats: predictive power depends on species traits and habitat type. Ecology and Evolution 5(19): 4426–4436. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1579


A selection of the topics I am working on currently.

logo Dutch National Pollinator Initiative

National Bee Strategy

As Naturalis Biodiversity Center we are an advising partner of the Dutch National Pollinator Initiative which brings together all of the bee supporting initiatives. For more information see: National Bee Strategy .
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